Additional Research Topics
Corticotropin-releasing hormone=CRH, Adrenocorticotropic hormone=ACTH.
Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) Summary:
Quantum mechanical involvement in human consciousness: The discovery of quantum effects in neuronal microtubles appears to be a significant step forward in identifying possible sources of otherwise obvious quantum effects. (4) For recent related studies see: Flanagan, Are Perceptual Fields Quantum Fields? http:// wordassociation1.net/ FieldWork. html (retrieved 4/6/2015). Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness, Jan. 2014, Elsevier- summary of the most recent work of Hameroff and Penrose published in Physics of Life Reviews, 10.1016/ 2013. 08.002. See also Engel, Evidence for wavelike energy transfer through quantum coherence in photosynthetic systems. Nature, 2007, 446 (7137): 782–786. Kikkawa, et. al., Direct visualization of the microtubule lattice seam both in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Cell Biology 127 (6): 1965–1971. Stapp, Mindful Universe: Quantum Mechanics and the Participating Observer (2nd ed.). 2011, NY: Springer; Kak, The three languages of the brain: quantum, reorganizational, and associative. In Learning as Self-Organization, 2004; Pribram, King (ed.s), Consciousness Reassessed. Mind and Matter, 2, 7–35, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, 185-219. Osborne, Quantum Vibrations in Brain Opens 'Pandora's Box' of Theories of Consciousness, 2014, Uk.news.yahoo.com (retrieved 2014-08-04). Penrose, Hameroff, Consciousness in the Universe: Neuroscience, Quantum Space-Time Geometry and Orch OR Theory, 2011, Journal of Cosmology 14. For a seven minute discussion of consciousness and quantum physics by Dr. Penrose including his collaboration with Dr. Hameroff, see:
Effects of pre-natal stress (PS) on human development: It is apparent from recent research that essentially permanent alterations in synaptic pathways are associated with certain levels of prenatal stress (PS) experienced by the mother and shared by the developing fetus. See: Weinstocka, Does Prenatal Stress Impair Coping and Regulation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis, see: http://www. sciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/ S0149763496000140. Attentional deficits, hyperanxiety, disturbed social behavior and impaired coping in stressful situations is associated with dysregulation of the HPA axis, characterized by decreased feedback inhibition of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and prolonged elevation of plasma glucocorticoids in response to stress. PS results in higher levels of CRH in the amygdala, fewer hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors and less endogenous opioid and GABA/BDZ (benzodiazepine) inhibitory activity. It appears from research that impaired coping in stressful situations and dysregulation of the HPA axis (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal; see Fig.1) result from the action of maternal hormones released during stress on the developing fetus; Lupien, et. al., Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition, /fileadmin/ pdf/lehre/ 2009_2010/psy/Effects of Stress..., 2009_02.pdf; King & Laplante, The effects of prenatal maternal stress on children’s cognitive development: Project Ice Storm, Stress, March 2005; 8(1): 35–45, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Quebec, 2 Douglas Hospital Research Centre, Verdun, Quebec, Canada. Buitelaar, et. al., Prenatal stress and cognitive development and temperament in infants. Neurobiology of Aging. 24 Suppl 1: S53–60; discussion S67–68.
The hypothalamic-pituatary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is an important suystem for corrective modulation. It is a neuro-endocrine structure that produces much of the actual regulation of our body function. Through what might be described as a combination positive and negative feedback loop the HPA axis system coordinates the interaction between the internal and external experience, including feelings and beliefs, that modulate the state of various body processes and their components such as organs, glands and tissue systems. This occurs within a range of catabolic (destructive) and anabolic (healing/ constructive) stress and healing factors and their associated energetic/ informational frequencies. (1) See also the Thalamic Reticular Activating System (RAS), SCIENCE 3.
Glia Cells: Glia, which represent approximately 85% of brain cells, long thought to play a mere support role for the brain's neurons, have since turned out to be highly significant in brain function– communicating in parallel to neurons while also managing and modulating neuronal activity. Their role in brain function and even intelligence is now unfolding and has also proven highly important to address in terms of optimum brain function. See: Newman, New roles for astrocytes: Regulation of synaptic transmission, Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Trends in Neurosciences, 2003, Vol.26 No.1. Also, Star- shaped glial cells act as the brain's 'motherboard', 2013, Tel Aviv University, Science Daily, 7 March 2013; De Pittà, et.al., Computational quest for understanding the role of astrocyte signaling in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 2012; 6. Heinrich, Götz, et. al., Directing Astroglia from the Cerebral Cortex into Subtype Specific Functional Neurons, Department of Physiological Genomics, Institute of Physiology, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Institute for Stem Cell Research, National Research Center for Environment and Health,Neuherberg, Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science CiPSM, Munich, Germany. Haydon, Carmignoto, Astrocyte
Glial cell role in Neurogenesis: The glia play an important role in synaptic nerve cell generation. For example, under certain conditions glial cells can actually transform into stem cells and from thence into new neurons. See: Barres, A New Role for Glia: Generation of Neurons, Cell, V. 97, Jun 11,1999, 667-670. Also: Progress in exploring new avenues for brain repair: Astroglia reprogrammed to generate synapse-forming neurons, http://www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2010/05/. Heinrich, Götz, et. al., Directing Astroglia from the Cerebral Cortex into Subtype Specific Functional Neurons. PLoS Biology, 2010; 8 (5). See also R. D. Fields, The Other Brain, Simon & Schuster, 2009, pp. 65-67, 157-158. See Morrens, et. al., Glial cells in adult neurogenesis, GLIA, V.60, 2, 2012, 159–174; Malatesta, Götz, Radial glia - from boring cables to stem cell stars. NIH (Nat'l Institutes of Health), 2013 Feb 1;140(3):483-6. http://dev.biologists. org/content/140/3/483.long. Heins, et. al., Glial cells generate neurons: the role of the transcription factor Pax6, 2002, Max-Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Munich in Nature, Mar. 2002. Doetsch, et. al. Subventricular zone astrocytes are neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Cell 97, 703-716. Cell, V.97, Issue 6, 11 Jun.1999, 703-716; Kriegstein, Alvarez-Buylla, The Glial Nature of Embryonic and Adult Neural Stem Cells, Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Departments of Neurology, Neurological Surgery, and School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, Annual Review of Neuroscience, 2009.
Glial cells: green
Stress, PTSD and Holocaust Studies: Children and adults may experience the detrimental effects of trauma they have endured, witnessed or never even experienced personally. Our clinical experience as well as that of others, further reinforced by recent scientific studies of stress, PTSD and the descendents of Holocaust victims, demonstrates physiological and emotional dysfunction, disturbing memories, dreams and debilitating fears associated with certain "tags" or "markers" attached to or piggy-backing on our DNA. See: Perry, Memories of fear: How the brain stores and retrieves physiological states, feelings, behaviours, and thoughts from traumatic events, In J. Goodwin & R. Attias (Eds.) Images of the Body in trauma. New York: Basic Books. There are a number of studies by Yehuda, et. al. that have demonstrated the clearest example of the generational transmission of trauma through “epigenetic inheritance” - signaling that environmental influences such as smoking, diet and stress can affect the genes of children and even grandchildren. (2) See also Primal Fear and RESEARCH 1, Epigenetics/Applied Generational Effects and
Control of Synaptic Transmission and Neurovascular
Coupling, Silvio Conte Center for Integration at the
Tripartite Synapse, Department of Neuroscience,
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine,
Philadelphia; and Istituto di neuroscienze,
Centro Nazionale Ricerche and Dipartimentodi
Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali, University of
Enteric (Intestinal) Nervous System (ENS - "Gut Brain")
Brain balancing, formatting or integration that does not take into account the neurological processing that goes on beyond the traditional concept of the central nervous system (CNS) is missing a significant portion of the picture. The intestinal tract "brain" (ENS) contains approximately 100 million neurons, more than in the spinal cord or the peripheral nervous system and produces at least 40 neurotransmitters, 50% of all dopamine and 95% of all the body's serotonin. It is impossible to have a sense of wellbeing without a healthy intestinal tract and proper intercommunication between it and the brain.
100 million neurons
Additionally there are many times more microorganisms than neurons in the gut that communicate not only among themselves but also interact with the body's own neural and other communication networks for both good and ill. See: Hadhazy, Think Twice: How the Gut's "Second Brain" Influences Mood and Well-Being, 2010, Scientific American, http://www. scientificamerican.com/ article/gut-second-brain/. Also 90% of the signals passing along the vagus nerve actually originate from the ENS. See: Young, Gut instincts: The secrets of your second brain, 2012, www. neuroscience.com, and Powley, Phillips, Morphology and topography of vagal afferents innervating the GI tract, 2002, American Journal of Physiology, v. 283, G1217. The electrical signaling inherent in all these systems involves and generates complex field forces and interactions not addressed by any traditional approaches. (3)
Cardiac (Autonomic) Nervous System: Due to the compartmentaization of the fields of medical research the significant connections between the heart (which has 40 thousand neurons of its own) and the brain have largely gone unexplored until recently. See: TED Talk: Cohen, Is the heart overlooked when it comes to intelligence? http:// conversations/1764/is_the_heart_ overlooked_when_i.html; and, Daemen,
The heart and the brain: an intimate and
underestimated relation, Netherlands Heart
Journal (NHJ). 2013 Feb; 21(2): 53–54; see
also: Frommeyer, et. al., Panic attacks and
supraventricular tachycardias: the chicken or
the egg? NHJ (2013) 21:74–77. Kapa, et. al.,
The autonomic nervous system in cardiac
electrophysiology: an elegant interaction and
emerging concepts, Cardiological Review 2010 Nov-Dec; 275-84. Interestingly, electromagnetic heart waves and their associated field are many times stronger than that of the brain.
40 million neurons
Quantum Observations: That consciousness has an intrinsic role or place in quantum physics is increasingly acknowledged by the scientific community including the implications of such items as the Observer Effect and Quantum Entanglement. While a debate persists about quantum mechanisms within human consciousness the fact remains that synaptic transmission alone cannot account for either the nature of human consciousness or the speed of a variety of biophysiological functions. In fact various phenomena defying Newtonian physics involving human intention and bioenergetic systems communication processes have been clearly demonstrated as well as the fact that the nature of thought processes have been shown to adhere to quantum principles. See: Buchanan, Quantum minds: Why we think like quarks, article/mg21128285.900. The host of documented near-death-experiences (NDE's) now available also make it clear that consciousness persists apart from the physical body and cannot, therefore be totally explained by traditional physical and biological processes. See also RESEARCH 4 including footnotes for a more in depth discussion of this topic. (5)
Other Neurogenesis: Besides the role of glial cells there are several factors relating to the potential regeneration of neurons and related support structures. See: Mandal, What is Neurogenesis? http://www. news-medical.net/health/What-is-Neurogenesis.aspx; Curtis, et.al., Neurogenesis in humans, Centre for Brain Research, Auckland University, European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 33, pp. 1170–1174, 2011; Cossins, Human Adult Neurogenesis Revealed: Retrospective carbon dating of human hippocampal cells confirms substantial adult neurogenesis and suggests that the process contributes to brain function, 2013, http://www. the-scientist.com/? articles.view/articleNo/35902/title/ Human-Adult-Neurogenesis-Revealed/; Spalding et al., Dynamics of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult humans, Cell, 153: 1219-27, 2013. Shen, et. al., Endothelial Cells Stimulate Self-Renewal and Expand Neurogenesis of Neural Stem Cells, 2013, Center for Neuropharmacology and Neuroscience, Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Center for Cell Biology and Cancer Research, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, http://www. sciencepubs .org/site/products /collectionbooks/stem_cells.pdf#page=13; Shi, Jiao, Direct lineage conversion: induced neuronal cells and induced neural stem cells, 2012, Institute of Zoology, State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Hsieh, Orchestrating transcriptional control of adult neurogenesis, 2012, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Genes & Development 2012, 26:1010-1021. Russ, Kaltschmidt, From induction to conduction: how intrinsic transcriptional priming of extrinsic neuronal connectivity shapes neuronal identity, 2014, Sloan Kettering Institute, rsob.royalsociety publishing.org; Gage, Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain, 2002, Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute, Journal of Neuroscience, Feb 22(3):612–613.
1) The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is a complex set of direct influence and feedback interactions among three endocrine glands: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenals. The interactions constitute a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and regulates many body processes, including digestion, immune system, mood/emotions, sexuality, energy storage and expenditure. It is the common mechanism for interactions among glands, hormones, and parts of the midbrain that mediate what is known as the general adaptation syndrome. The physiological role of the HPA axis and corticosteroids in stress response is fundamental and analogous systems can be found in invertebrates and monocellular organisms. A key element of the HPA axis is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, which contains neuroendocrine neurons that synthesize and secrete vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). These two peptides regulate the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, CRH and vasopressin stimulate the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which in turn acts on the adrenal cortex producing glucocorticoid hormones (mainly cortisol) in response. Glucocorticoids in turn act back on the hypothalamus and pituitary to suppress CRH and ACTH production in a negative modulating feedback cycle. See Duval, et. al., Neural circuits in anxiety and stress disorders: a focused review, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor.
2) "The epigenetics revolution hit in the early 2000s, when scientists began reporting that environmental factors — everything from neglectful mothering and child abuse to a high-fat diet and air pollution — can influence the addition or removal of chemical tags on DNA that turn genes on and off." Hughes, The Sins of the Fathers, Mar 2014, Nature, V. 507, 22-24. For a synopsis of Rachel Yahuda's work on transgenerational environmental effects see: Transgenerational Transmission of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, The S File, transmission-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder/. It is now known that certain genes are involved but the complete mechanisms of transmission cannot yet explain the entirety of observed results. We would propose that the work of Rupert Sheldrake with Morphic Fields is a necessary component in such things as the process of trait, disposition and memory inheritance. Clearly energetic/informational field forces are involved.
3) See also: Cryan, Dinan, Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour, Nature Reviews Neuroscience 13, 701-712 , Oct. 2012; Reardon, Gut–brain link grabs neuroscientists: Idea that intestinal bacteria affect mental health gains ground. Nature, 12 Nov. 2014; McMillin, et al., The Abdominal Brain and Enteric Nervous System, J of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine, 1999, v.5, #6, 575-586. Mayer, et al. Gut feelings: the emerging biology of gut–brain communication, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2011. Wakefield, The gut–brain axis in childhood developmental disorders, Journal of pediatric gastroenterology & nutrition, 2002.
4) Regardless of whatever mechanisms emerge quantum field theory provides a better understanding of the best data available on the logic and flow of human cognitive processes than any Newtonian approach. "With astonishing counterintuitive ramifications, quantum theory is the best empirically confirmed scientific theory in human history. It is 'essential to every natural science' and its practical applications, such as the laser and the transistor, form the direct basis of at least one-third of our current economy." (Rosenblum & Kuttner, 2006, p. 81). "However, applying quantum theory to human cognition is not merely a simple extension of a most successful scientific theory. Rather, this endeavor is driven by a myriad of puzzling findings and stubborn challenges in psychological literature, by deep resonations between basic notions of quantum theory and psychological conceptions and intuitions, and by the exhibited potential of the theory to provide coherent and mathematically principled explanations for the puzzles and challenges in human cognitive research" (Busemeyer & Bruza, 2012). The quantum concept of entanglement, for example, assists to explain the coherence, resonance and synchronicity exhibited by cortical and other biophysical structures. See: Wang, et. al. The Potential of Using Quantum Theory to Build Models of Cognition, 2013, Topics in Cognitive Sciences 5, pp. 672–688; School of Communication, Center for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Ohio State University; Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University; Department of Theory and Data Analysis, Institute for Frontier Areas of Psychology; Department of Psychology, City University, London.
5) Physicist, David Bohm, based upon his plasma experiments at the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory found that gaseous electrons acted as if they were inherently intelligent and that the Non-Locality they exhibited meant that everything in the universe is connected together and that space and time is composed of the same essence as matter. Bell's Theory of quantum physics states to the effect that once connected [energetically entangled], objects affect one another forever no matter where they are, such that an invisible stream of energy will always connect any two objects that have been connected in any way in the past. Also, according to the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Program, the principles of complimentarity (e.g. action in one system can affect the actions in another system at a quantum energetic level, free of the limits of time and space) and wave resonance (e.g. matter and energy exchanging affects as vibrating waves and particles) tie matter and energy together as essentially two poles of the same entity. Bell's Theorem has been further proven by a Dutch research team who have demonstrated entanglement across 1.3 km and are planning another proof over a section of the universe. One of their conclusions is that in the quantum world time operates both forward and backwards, B Hensen, et al., Loophole-Free Bell Inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometers, Nature, Aug 2015; Dunne, Jahn, CONSCIOUSNESS AND ANOMALOUS PHYSICAL PHENOMENA, 1991, 1995. For further discussion of related topics see also physcon/science/,html. See also Why is information indestructible?